Mark Hughes' side secured a spot in the last 32 courtesy of a 2-1 triumph against Leicester City on Saturday, whilst the Blues overcame Derby at Pride Park 24 hours later.
It means a return to Stamford Bridge for boss Hughes, who made over 100 appearances for the West Londoners during a successful three-year spell there during his playing career.
The Potters have already tasted success against Jose Mourinho's side this term, with an enthralling 3-2 league win being secured at the Britannia Stadium earlier in the season.
The tie will be played over the weekend of January 25/26, the second time in a week that the side will have travelled to London, with the Premier League meeting away at Crystal Palace scheduled for Saturday, 18th January.
Ticket informational and kick-off confirmation will be announced in due course.